Friday, January 15, 2010

Copied from Boise State.edu Lessson Plans Assessment Of Reading

Boise State University
Tutoring Program in Reading
Client Report Spring 2005

Name: Tutor:
Age (Birth Date): Period covered by report:
Grade:
Report to: Parents:
[Include mailing address]
Teacher:
[Include mailing address]
BSU Reading Center: Dr. Lee Dubert


Introduction: (Summarize School and parent information. Overview interest inventory and Life Bag meeting.)

Evaluation of Reading Ability:

Assessments Administered
Published Measures:

Applegate, M.D., Quinn, K.B., Applegate, A. (2004). The Critical Reading Inventory: Assessing Students’ Reading and Thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Merrill Prentice Hall.
Bear, D.R., Templeton, S., Invernizzi, M. & Johnson, F. (2004). “Elementary Spelling Inventory” from Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. 3rd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
Clay, M. M. (1993) An observation survey of early literacy achievement, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Ekwall, E.E. & Shanker, J.L. (2003). “Letter knowledge assessment” in Locating and correcting reading difficulties, 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Flynt, E.S. & Cooter, R.B. (1997) Flynt-Cooter Reading Inventory for the Classroom (3rd ed.). Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick.
Koslin, B.K, Koslin, S. , Ivens, S.H. & Zeno, S.M. (1989). Degrees of Reading Power, Brewster, NY: Touchstone Applied Science Associates (TASATM), Inc.
Johnson, D.D. (1984),. Johnson Word List in Teaching Reading: Vocabulary. CBS College Publishing.
MacGinitie, W. H. & MacGinitie, R. K.(1989). Gates-MacGinitie reading tests(3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.
McKenna, M. C. & Kear, D.J. (1990). Elementary Reading Attitude Survey . “Measuring Attitudes Toward Reading: A New Tool For Teachers”. The Reading Teacher 43 (9), 626-639. Completed: September 22, 1997.
Morris, (1992). Early Reading Screening Instrument. In W.A. Secord & J.S. Damico (eds.), Best practices in school speech language pathology (pp. 43-51). Orland, FL: Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich.
Scholastic, (1999) Scholastic Reading Inventory. New York, New York: Scholastic, Inc.

Teacher Constructed Measures
Tradebook Reading Inventory and Miscue Analysis from:

Assessment Results Delete all that you are not reporting. You can cut and paste from the report form to add them in if you decide to add another assessment.
An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement

Developed and researched by Marie Clay, the Observation Study (OBS) has been widely used to assess the emergent literacy behaviors of children. The assessment includes a variety of tasks such as letter name knowledge, book handling, word writing and dictation that help teachers determine a child’s current development and offers direction for subsequent instruction. The assessment has been normed in a variety of contexts. The scores that will be reported here will those those of 282 urban children in New Zealand ages six to seven years and three months in 1978. Consequently, the norms are not generalizable to most contexts, but are useful for determining a general developmental stage. These norms are reported in stanines. A stanine score places children on a one to nine scale. Stanines four through six are considered “average” achievement. Thus, on the OBS assessment the stanine represents the general order of achievement as children age from six years to seven years and three months. A score of nine represents the score that the most skilled emergent readers in this group would have achieved.

Table
Observational Survey Results

Sub-test Score Stanine
Letter Identification
Concepts About Print
Writing Vocabulary
Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words (Dictation Task)

Discussion:


Degrees of Reading Power (DRP)
The tests of the Degrees of Reading Power (DRP) program are holistic measures of how well the messages within text are understood. As much as is possible in a testing situation, DRP tests determine how well a student reads under "real life" conditions in and out of school. The DRP tests are single-objective tests measuring how well students understand the surface meaning of what they read. DRP tests are genuine criterion-referenced measures. The tests measure student reading ability on an absolute scale. With the range of scores reported it is possible to precisely place students in reading materials that fit their reading ability.
The DRP scores presented here will be interpreted several ways. The first interpretation will be a general indication of the "grade level" textbooks the student will be likely to be able to read independently and with instructional assistance. The second interpretation will be titles of specific tradebooks that fall within the client's independent and instructional reading ranges. The final interpretation will suggest a correspondence between the client's DRP scores and a percentile rank score indicating his/her standing in comparison to peers.

Table
DRP Reading Level Scores

Independent Instructional Frustration Percentile Rank

Date of administration:
Form:

Discussion: [Most of the explanation for how to interpret the scores is provided above. You will need to help anchor the scores in real tasks. You may use the “average DRP score” of textbooks at a grade level. This number is available in the DRP Handbook. Include the DRP scores of books typically used in the client’s school. Lists of textbooks and novels used in Boise and Meridian are available. The lists of books that you will recommend appears later.]

Sunshine Informal Reading Inventory
The Wright Group

The Sunshine Informal Reading Inventory is similar to other informal reading inventories but evaluates more precisely early reading ability. Most informal reading inventories have two or three levels to assess beginning readers (Preprimer, primer and 1st grade). These divisions are too broad for usefully placing early readers in appropriate materials. The Sunshine Inventory uses the Fountas/Pinnell leveling system of ranking books in an alphabetical order using the letters A-I to rank order the difficulty of books from kindergarten through grade 1. A representation of these levels in comparison to traditional reading levels and grade levels is presented in table X.

Table
Book Level Equivalence Chart

Reading Stage Grade Fountas/Pinnell Level Basal Reader Level
Emergent K
1 A Readiness

Early K
1 B
K
1 C PP1
1 D PP2
1 E PP3
1 F Primer
1 G
Transitional 1 H 1
1
2 I
2 J 2

The criteria used to determine independent, instructional and frustration levels is similar to those of traditional IRIs with the exception that the criteria for word recognition accuracy is somewhat lower than the traditional criteria. This is based on the professional belief that emergent readers have to tolerate a slightly larger number of unknown words initially because they cannot be expected to know many words at all. Following is a summary of Powell’s criteria for recommended levels for 1st grade (beginning) readers

Reading Level Word Recognition Accuracy Comprehension Percentage
Independent 94% 80%
Instructional 89% 55-80%
Frustration Less than 89% Less than 55%

The Sunshine Assessment uses a global rating of complete, adequate and limited to describe the reader’s ability to retell information about characters, events and settings rather than using a percentage of answers.

Table
Sunshine Informal Reading Inventory
Level Word Recognition Accuracy
Characters Comprehension
Events
Setting Rate
(WPM) Fluency
A
B
C
D
E
F

Date of Administration:
Forms:

Narrative
Independent Level
Instructional Level
Frustration Level


Discussion:


Flynt-Cooter Reading Inventory
The Flynt-Cooter Reading Inventory generally follows the format of traditional informal reading inventories. Students are asked to read leveled sets of sentences to help identify a starting level. Students read these sets until making two or more errors in a set of sentences. Once the starting level is established (the last level at which no errors occurred), students are asked to read silently, a series of leveled reading passages. Once the passage is read, a measure of reading comprehension is completed. After the comprehension measure students are asked to read a 100 word section aloud. Measures of oral reading accuracy are derived from this brief oral reading of material that has previously been read silently. It should be noted that this is a different procedure than is used in most IRIs. The Boise State University Reading Center uses traditional criteria for the establishment of independent or “easy”, instructional or “adequate”, and frustration or “too hard” reading levels. The independent level is that level at which students are able to read the passage with 99% or higher total word recognition accuracy and 88% or higher comprehension. The instructional level is that level at which students are able to read the passage with 94 to 98% total word recognition accuracy and 50 to 89% comprehension. The frustration level is that level at which students read with 93% or lower total word recognition accuracy and less than 50% comprehension. For the purpose of more completely describing students' reading behaviors, the sentence reading score and the reading rate are also reported in the following table. Comprehension is measured first as free recall--a students' ability to independently retell a story or passage without the use of examiner-posed questions. After a student has finished retelling the story, the examiner may, if necessary, pose the traditional comprehension questions if the student has not already answered them in his or her free recall.

Table
Flynt-Cooter IRI Scores

Sentences Reading Passages
Sentence Word Recognition Comprehension Rate(WPM)
Level Errors Type Accuracy Free Recall Total Silent Oral



Date of Administration:
Forms:
Narrative Expository
Independent Level
Instructional Level
Frustration Level
Listening Level

Discussion: [Identify the independent, instructional, and frustration levels. If the client’s scores do not reach the criteria for each of these levels report only those levels for which you have scores. In other words, don’t assume that if your client has scores at the 1st reading level that meet the criteria for instructional level reading do not claim that primer level materials are independent level reading unless you have actually obtained scores that confirm that.]

Tradebook Reading Inventory and Miscue Analysis

Because of the sometimes artificial nature of a commercially published informal reading inventory, clients participating in the Reading Center program also complete at least one tradebook reading inventory (or selected components of it). This inventory involves reading aloud from a tradebook at the clients' instructional reading level (when at all possible). The reading levels according to the Fry, DRP and the Lexile readability formulae are reported (or publisher estimates when available). Readability estimates are always an imprecise measure of a book’s “readability" but do serve as an indication of the vocabulary load and sentence length of the materials.
In addition to word recognition accuracy, comprehension, and rate scores, a miscue analysis of the reading "errors" made by students is completed. This analysis permits an interpretation of the types of cueing systems the client uses while reading. The scores reported under the columns labeled "graphophonic similarity" serve as an indication of the client's ability to use phonic analysis to decode unfamiliar words. The scores reported in the columns labeled "acceptability" indicate the degree to which the client uses syntactic (grammatical) and semantic (meaning) cues to decode unfamiliar words. The scores in the column labeled "self-correction" provide a further indication of the client's ability to use the overall meaning of the passage to "fix-up" momentary decoding problems. The column labeled "combined cues" represents the client's ability to use syntactic and semantic cues and self-correction to produce an accurate reading of the text.

Table
TBRI Scores
Book and Reading Level Date of Administration
Total Words: Number of Miscues Analyzed:

Word Recognition Graphophonic Similarity Acceptability Self- Combined Rate
Accuracy-Total High Partial Low Syn. Sem. Correction Cues (wpm)


Comprehension
Morrow Free Recall Unaided Comprehension Total Comprehension



Discussion: [Report only scores from materials that are at instructional reading levels, unless the client has unusually unbalanced word recognition vs. comprehension patterns. Focus your discussion on how well the client is able to interactively take advantage of cueing systems to decode words and construct meaning. Remember your audience (parents and teachers) may not be familiar with the cueing systems or what they mean.]

The Critical Reading Inventory
The Critical Reading Inventory follows a format that is a bit different than the traditional informal reading inventory. The Critical Reading Inventory uses three distinct types of assessment of reading comprehension. Text-based items require the reader to recall information from the text or to make fairly obvious connections between and among ideas in the text. Inference items require readers to draw conclusions by relating items the information from the text to what they already know. Critical response items require the reader to address the “big picture” and arrive at statements of broader significance of the text.
A graded list of words is presented to the readers in 1-second flash and un-timed formats, and their performance determines the starting point of the reading assessment. Students are asked to read one passage orally and then do a retelling and answer questions on that reading. Miscue analysis is done for this oral reading. Word accuracy is also done for the oral passage. The whole passage is considered when calculating the word accuracy percentage. In the second passage, the students read silently. After completing, the students do a retelling and answer questions. Retellings are scored using a rubric that is provided. Questions for both oral and silent passages contain three types of questions: text based, inference and critical response. Scoring of the reading passages is as follows:

Level Reading Accuracy Average Comprehension
Independent 99% 90%
Instructional 95% 75%
Frustration 90% 50%

Table
Critical Reading Inventory

Sentences Reading Passages
Comprehension Rate—WPM
Level Sentence Errors Type Word Recognition Accuracy Retelling Text Inference Critical Total Silent Oral
2N N
3N N
4N N
5N N
6N N
1E E
2E E
3E E
For comprehension scores, the top number indicates the number correct answers and the bottom score indicates the number of questions. The total percent does not include retelling.

Date of Administration:
Forms:
Narrative Expository
Independent Level
Instructional Level
Frustration Level

Discussion:

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test

The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests represent a different approach to reading assessment than other measures used at BSU. The tasks presented are much simpler than those of the DRP. Two separate scores are presented, vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. The vocabulary measure requires students to select a synonym for the target word from a number of choices. No context is presented for either the target vocabulary words or the choices of synonym. The comprehension measure requires students to read very brief passages (well under 200 words) silently and answer a number of questions in a multiple-choice format.
A number of statistical representations of the raw score are made in order to provide interpretations of the reader’s performance on this measure. Percentile rank scores describe a student’s level or reading achievement in terms of relative standing within a group of students at the same grade level. A percentile rank of 50% is considered average. Stanine scores divide a set of scores into nine parts with a mean (average) of 5 based on the achievement of other students in the same grade. Stanines of 4-6 are considered “average” or “grade-level” achievement. Normal Curve Equivalents (NCE) scores are somewhat like percentile ranks, but have equal units. Thus a NCE score of 50 is the “mean” or average score. NCEs from approximately 40-60 are considered “average” or “grade-level” achievement. Like percentile rank and stanine scores NCEs are based on a comparison to other students in the same grade level. Grade equivalent (GE) scores, although frequently reported, are an inexact representation of achievement. The achievement of students “on or near grade level” are most accurately represented by grade equivalent scores. Outside of the “average” grade equivalent scores should be viewed as rough indicators of achievement. A fifth grader with an 8th GE score will probably not be ready cognitively for 8th grade concepts or work. A fifth grader with a 2nd GE score will generally be too intellectually advanced and/or mature to profit from much work in 2nd grade materials. Extended scale scores (ESSs) were developed so that progress in reading can be followed over a period of years on a single, continuous scale. Thus, they are roughly equivalent to the type of score used on ISATs, the RIT score. Te ESS scale, like the NCE scale, measures reading achievement in equal units, so that a difference of, for example, 50 ESS units represents the same difference all along the scale. The ESS scores for the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test were developed by the test maker for this particular test based on students in the norming group. Thus, they cannot be compared to ESS scores reported on other assessments.

Table
Gates-MacGinitie Scores

Raw Score Stanine NCE PR CE ESS
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Total

Date of Administration:
Form:

Discussion:

The Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI)

The SRI assesses reading and matches students to books. It is a computer-based reading comprehension test for grades K-12 that assesses students’ reading levels and provides a Lexile measure. It measures comprehension of authentic literature, not just isolated vocabulary. The Lexile Framework provides teachers with lists of literary selections by instructional and independent reading levels as well as developmental and interest levels ensuring a good experience for every student. The Lexile Framework measures the difficulty of text using transformations of sentence length and frequency of word usage. Lexile scores are also reported by the Idaho State Achievement Tests (ISATs).

Table 2
Scholastic Reading Inventory Results

Lexile Score Percentile Rank Stanine
Date of Administration:

Discussion:

Elementary Spelling Inventory

Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, provides a practical way to study words with students. Based on the research on invented and developmental spelling, the framework of the program is keyed to the five stages of spelling or orthographic development. The stages and approximate ages/grades of the program are:

• Emergent Spellers Ages 1-7 Grades pre-K to mid-1
• Letter Name Spellers Ages 4-9 Grades K to early 3
• Within-Word Pattern Spellers Ages 6-12 Grades 1 to mid-4
• Syllables and Affixes Spellers Ages 8-18 Grades 3 to 8
• Derivational Relations Spellers Ages 10+ Grades 5 to 12

The program emphasizes an analytical approach to phonics, vocabulary and spelling instruction. Students develop understands in all three areas by sorting, searching, writing and game activities. They also keep a word study notebook in which they keep lists of words representing the phonic and morphemic patterns they are studying.


Table
Words Their Way Primary Elementary Inventory I

Date of Administration:
Number of Words Spelled Correctly:
Number of Words Attempted:

Emergent-late
Initial Consonants /2
Final Consonants /5
Letter Name-Alphabetic Short Vowels /4
Digraphs and Blends /8
Within Word Pattern Long Vowel Patterns /6
Other Vowel Patterns /6
Syllables & Affixes Syllable Junctures, Consonant Doubling, Inflected Endings, Prefixes Suffixes

/9
Harder Prefixes, Suffixes & Unaccented Final Syllables
/8
Derivational Relations Reduced & Altered Vowels, Bases, Roots & Derivatives
/5
Total /53


Spelling Stage:


Discussion:

Ekwall Shanker Phonics Assessment

The Ekwall/Shanker Phonics Assessment consists of nine subtests that evaluate the student’s knowledge of all the critical phonics skills. Subtest 1 measures 105 one-syllable words in context. Subtests 2-6 have the student identify a word or word parts when given a word or word part pronounced by the examiner. Subtest 7 requires the student to blend a beginning sound with one of two common phonograms. Subtest 8 requires the student to substitute a new phonic element and blend it with the rest of the word. Subtest 9 evaluates the student’s ability to pronounce 15 real words that represent the more difficult vowel patterns.

Table
Ekwall/Shanker Phonics Assessment

Subtest # & Focus Score Total Possible Mastery Level Mastered

1 Application of Phonics in Context
73 65
2-Initial Consonants
10 9
3-Initial Blends & Digraphs
10 9
4-Ending Sounds
10 8
5-Vowels (Sound-symbol)
10 9
6-Phonograms (Sound-symbol)
10 9
7-Blending (Sound-symbol)
10 9
8-Substitution (Sound-symbol)
25 22
9-Vowel Pronunciation
15 13
Date of Administration:

Discussion:


Summary of Assessment Results


Description of Work During Sessions-[You may include work samples]

Introduction



Weekly Lessons:

Date: Instructional Hypothesis:

CDA Data This is in table form too. Use your tab key to move through the cells and your return key to add another row. You may delete rows if you don’t need to report that type of data. For example. If you know your client’s presenting problem in comprehension you can delete the Error Rate/WRA and WPM columns
Lesson #/Date Title: (The other information i.e. author/publisher) should be in your list of materials used) Readability/Grade Level: Error Rate/WRA Morrow (free recall): Comp. Questions WPM
(optional)






Activities During Instruction
GCR
Date: GCR Strategy & Reflection


Reflection: [Do a GCR and separate SAS strategy for each lesson. This can be right after each strategy]

SAS
Date: SAS Strategy/Work & Reflection

Interpretation of activities
[Build this later from your reflections]

Materials read

For instruction [These are in “table” format. Just use the tab button to move between columns. Hit return at the end to insert a new row.}

Lesson Date Author, Copyright, Title, City:Publisher. Level G.E. Lexile DRP


Recreational reading

Lesson Date Author, Copyright, Title, City:Publisher. Level G.E. Lexile DRP

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