Thursday, October 22, 2009

about the 7 strategies to construct meaning - draft

Week 4

( FALL 2009 ) BASIC READING INSTRUCTION GR 1-GR 6 [ EDSE 665 OQ ] 09/10/2009 - 12/15/2009 (EDSE-665--OQ-FA-09-GSEP) > ASSIGNMENTS > UPLOAD ASSIGNMENT: WEEK 4 - ASSIGNMENT (10/18/2009)


Upload Assignment: Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)
Assignment Information
Name Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)
Instructions Read Textbook Chapters 4.

Weekly Papers - 2 Questions

Reflection Questions:

1. What is 'reciprocal' teaching? (Focus on procedures & possible uses).


While researching the meaning of rt , I found a previous entry / comment from yahoo answers , which I though that I would share. As follows:
Who have tried reciprocal teaching as a strategy in class? how was it?

i am presently making a quasi experiment on the difference between the traditional method of teaching (where the teacher just discuss the topic) and using reciprocal teaching... i wanted to gather information, ideas, findings of other educators who have tried reciprocal teaching in their classes..

Reciprocal teaching is fantastic! It takes time to teach students the proper way to discuss literature but I've seen it work wonderfully.



2. List the seven strategies that help to construct meaning. Give an example of each strategy.


In a great article from AdLit. Org, a lever list of the & strategies to construct meaning is listed:

http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acquisition.phtml

AdLit Magazine http://www.adlit.org/article/19844

WETA AD LIT http://weta.convio.net/site/PageServer?pagename=AdLit_regthankyou


I chose to use the early education model to describe the seven strategies, because it makes it fun and easier to remember. So let us start.

A is for Activating. Activating is the Exercising of the Cognitive Muscles in order to recall and relate relevant prior knowledge in order to extract and construct meaning from text.
I is for Inferring. Inferring is the act of bringing together what is spoken ( written) and what is unspoken (unwritten) amd what is already known in order to construct meaning.
M/C is for Monitoring- Clarifying. Monitoring – Clarifying is defined as “ thinking about how and what one is reading, all throughout the reading process, for determining if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups.”


Instructional Aid 1.1: Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers
Strategy Definition
Activating -
Inferring
Monitoring-Clarifying
Questioning
Searching-Selecting
Summarizing
Visualizing-Organizing
Copyright © 2007 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from 40 Ways to Support Struggling Readers in the Content Classrooms, Grades 6-12 by Elaine K. McEwan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, www.corwinpress.com.
"Priming the cognitive pump" in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory
in order to extract and construct meaning from text
Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoker (unwritten) in the text, and what is already
known by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the text
Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining
if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups
Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question
generation, and question answering
Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and
terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather information.
Restating the meaning of text in one's own words--different words from those used in the original text
Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the
text

Instructional Aid 1.1: Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers
Strategy Definition
Activating
Inferring
Monitoring-Clarifying
Questioning
Searching-Selecting
Summarizing
Visualizing-Organizing
Copyright © 2007 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from 40 Ways to Support Struggling Readers in the Content
Classrooms, Grades 6-12 by Elaine K. McEwan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, www.corwinpress.com.
"Priming the cognitive pump" in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory
in order to extract and construct meaning from text
Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoker (unwritten) in the text, and what is already
knowen by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the text
Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining
if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups
Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question
generation, and question answering
Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and
terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather information.
Restating the meaning of text in one's own words--different words from those used in the original text
Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the
text








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Week 5 vocabulary

Teaching Today publishes innovative teaching tips on a weekly basis. Written with the busy teacher in mind, each tip is concise, practical and easy to implement in the classroom right away. Topics covered in Teaching Today are classroom management, career development, high stakes testing, instruction and planning, parental involvement, reading in the content areas, using technology in the classroom, and portfolio development. Teaching Today also offers free weekly downloads that correspond to the tips. Our free downloads make implementing the teaching tips even easier. Teaching Today provides educational resources for teachers looking for everyday solutions to the challenges of the classroom.


http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acquisition.phtml


Helping Students Learn Vocabulary-Acquisition Skills
The task of teaching vocabulary-acquisition skills usually falls to language arts teachers. This is a significant responsibility because formal learning—the kind of learning that students do in school—demands vocabulary knowledge. When you help students learn how to build their vocabularies, you help them succeed across the curriculum.

This article examines the two major ways in which students acquire new vocabulary, the students for whom each way is best suited, and strategies for teaching vocabulary acquisition.

Incidental Acquisition vs. Direct Study
Students may acquire vocabulary in two ways:

Incidentally, through the conscious or unconscious use of context clues during independent reading and listening activities
Through direct instruction and study.
Incidental Acquisition
Incidental vocabulary acquisition is a common means of learning new vocabulary, especially for proficient readers. Students with strong reading skills who read a variety of texts may realize substantial gains in their vocabulary without direct instruction. High-risk students may also realize some incidental vocabulary gains through independent reading, however. Teachers should neither ignore nor rely solely upon incidental acquisition but rather seek to enhance its effectiveness with vocabulary logs, word walls and other techniques discussed below.
Direct Study
Of the two ways students acquire vocabulary, direct study is the more efficient, particularly for high-risk students with poor vocabularies. There are several reasons that students may fail to learn new vocabulary on their own:

Lack of Independent Reading: High-risk students often have a history of reading difficulties. As a result, these students generally read less—and with less comprehension—than students with strong reading skills and rich vocabularies. The less students read, the fewer the opportunities to acquire new vocabulary.

Inability to Use Context Clues: Students often lack the ability to find and use context clues to infer word meaning. Students may simply skip over unfamiliar words or, if the concentration of unfamiliar words is high, quickly become frustrated and stop reading entirely.

Weakness of Context-Clue Vocabulary Acquisition: Even when students are able to use context clues to infer the meanings of unfamiliar words, the words may not become part of students' speaking, listening, or reading vocabularies. Studies show that students cannot recall an unfamiliar word whose meaning they have inferred unless they encounter the word repeatedly and within the same or a similar context.
A Multifaceted Approach to Vocabulary Acquisition
Because most classrooms contain a variety of types of students—high-risk, gifted or talented, and everything in between—teachers are wise to adopt a multifaceted approach to vocabulary acquisition. This approach provides direct instruction as well as opportunities for incidental learning. Here are some strategies for implementing the approach:
Require independent reading: If your school does not already have a recommended reading list, help create one. Include high-interest, low-level books suitable for high-risk students as well as books that will challenge the gifted or talented. Then require students to read a certain number of books of their choice from the list. Students might provide feedback on their reading in a variety of ways: oral or written book reports, posters with plot summaries, performances of key scenes, or the creation of "book boxes"—cardboard boxes that contain objects key to the plot or characters in a book.

Encourage the use of semantic maps: Semantic maps are graphic organizers that help students associate an unfamiliar word with familiar related words. To map the word noun, for example, draw a circle and write noun in the center of it. Then draw smaller circles around the central circle and fill each with a key related word, such as person, place, and thing. To complete the map, surround each outer circle with a series of subcircles, each containing an example of the related word, such as the name of a specific person, place, or thing. Then show the relationships by connecting all the circles with lines.

Have students keep vocabulary logs: Require students to reserve a section of their journals or notebooks for listing, defining, and using new words that they learn during independent reading or in their classes. Have students copy the context in which they first encounter each word. Periodically collect students' logs and create opportunities for students to hear, see, and use the words in context. For example, you might use words from students' logs in classroom conversations. Have students create a "word wall"—a bulletin board displaying new words in sentences or graphic organizers—and require students to use the new words in compositions.

Teach students the key word method: To use this mnemonic device, students think of an image that connects an unfamiliar word with a familiar key word that sounds similar or is contained within the target word. For example, to remember the word truculent, students might think of the key word truck and then draw or visualize a picture of a fierce-looking person driving a truck to represent the meaning of the word.

Preteach unfamiliar vocabulary in reading assignments: Studies suggest that students must encounter a new word in print several times in order to remember its meaning. However, the number of encounters needed to learn the word is significantly reduced when students are taught the meaning of the word before encountering it in a reading assignment.
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