Week 1 - Assignment (09/20/2009)
Read Textbook Chapters 1.
Weekly Papers - 2 Questions
1. What are the principles for guiding literacy ? Please explain.
2. What are the stages of Literacy development?
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From: Neil Winchel <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: neil winchel <email@example.com>
Sent: Wednesday, September 9, 2009 12:49:54 PM
Subject: School Readding 1
|Chapter 1: Lecture Notes |
FOCUS ON LITERACY LEARNING
Standards are serving as the basis for schools throughout the country to develop comprehensive literacy programs. The emphasis is on differentiated instruction that focuses on the needs of individual learners.
Literacy involves all of the communication and calculation skills needed to survive in today's world. This text focuses on the communication aspects of literacy-listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking. Viewing is a form of literacy in which the individual applies communication skills to watching a movie or a television program.
Oral language (listening and speaking) is the foundation of all literacy learning. Reading and writing build on listening and speaking. Thinking is an integral part of all of these processes.
As students develop literacy, they go through several stages or phases-Early Emergent Literacy, Emergent Literacy, Beginning Reading and Writing, Almost Fluent Reading and Writing, and Fluent Reading and Writing. Students do not progress through these stages smoothly, and there is much overlap between the stages.
Standards are statements of what is expected or valued in a given area. Benchmarks are statements of behaviors that would indicate whether a student has achieved a given standard. Standards and benchmarks are becoming increasingly more important in education at the national, state, and local levels. They form the foundation for all instruction and assessment.
All classrooms are diverse classrooms, containing English Language Learners, learning-disabled students, gifted students, and so forth. There is strength in this diversity. Technology plays an increasingly more important role in helping us meet the needs of all learners.
Over the last sixty years, literacy learning has gone through many phases. Knowing about these phases helps us better understand what we do currently and see how and why we have arrived at a more balanced approach to instruction.
Four principles should guide all literacy instruction:
1. Reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing,
and thinking develop simultaneously as learners
2. The foundations of all literacy learning are oral
language, prior knowledge, and background
3. Effective literacy instruction must include a
combination of systematic, explicit, direct
instruction and other types of activities which
support literacy learning.
4. Literacy instruction should be differentiated to
meet the diverse needs of every student.
Differentiated instruction diversity
Stages of literacy development standards
Adapted from Cooper, J.D. & Kiger, N.D. (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning. 6th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Copyright 2006.