Wednesday, September 23, 2009

EDSE 665 Questions Role of Teacher and Read Aloud

Week 2 - Assignment (10/04/2009)


Read Textbook Chapters 2. Weekly Papers - 2 Questions

Reflection Questions:

1. What is the role of the teacher in the classroom ?



2. What are the benefits and value of a 'Read-Aloud' ?

This dissertation entitled

THE IMPACT OF ONE-ON-ONE TUTORING

ON FIRST-FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS’ WORD WRITING ABILITIES

FOR COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY, AND FLUENCY

A dissertation presented to the faculty of

the College of Education of Ohio University

Julie Barnhart Francis

November 2006

READ ALOUD

http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Barnhart%20Francis%20Julie%20L.pdf?ohiou1164127774

While researchers tend to agree that children learn despite the choice of instructional approach based on differing theories of reading, that children move fluidly through stages of literacy development, and that the role of teacher is critical to the children’s literacy development, there continues to be a gap in the literature regarding the teaching of writing in the literacy development of children.

Literacy Interventions and Tutoring

A review of effective literacy interventions and tutoring programs reveals several common principles. These principles include:

1) emphasis on more intensive interventions such as one-on-one tutorial models (D'Agostino & Murphy, 2004; Duffy-Hester, 1999; Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, & Moody, 2000),

2) explicit instruction in the context of authentic reading and writing activities (Pressley, 2006),

3) appropriateness of individualized instruction informed by assessment (Johnston, 2003; Serafini, 2001; Valencia & Buly, 2004),

4) professional development for teachers and tutors (Allington & Cunningham, 2001; Pinnell, Lyons, Deford, Bryk, & Seltzer, 1994),

5) shared responsibility for all students by all school personnel (Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2005), and

6) increased parental involvement (Englund, Luckner, Whaley, & Egeland, 2004; Tracey, 2000).

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Two types of literacy interventions and tutoring programs, preventive interventions and interventions for acceleration, are identified in the literature (Allington, 2005). Preventive interventions, which include early intervention programs, focus on reducing the incidence of reading difficulties (Strickland, 2002). Interventions for acceleration focus on speeding up literacy development by adding instructional support for under-achieving students (Shanker & Ekwall, 2002). A third, new type of intervention called Response to Intervention provides a three-tiered model with increasing levels of intervention for all areas of academics, including literacy, at each tier (Boswell, 2005; National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 2005).

Two factors greatly influence the effectiveness of literacy interventions: levels of expertise and levels of intensity (Allington, 2005; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). Levels of expertise refer to the training and professional development of the teachers and tutors delivering the interventions (Elbaum et al., 2000; Pinnell et al., 1994; Wasik & Slavin, 1993). Levels of intensity refer the students’ engagement in the learning (Ramey & Ramey, 1998) and the ratio of teachers to students in the intervention (Mathes et al., 2005; O'Connor, 2000; Simmons, Kame'Enui, Stoolmiller, Coyne, & Harn, 2003; Torgesen, Rashotte, Alexander, Alexander, & Macphee, 2003).



ROLE OF TEACHER

Implications of the Study

There are several implications that can be drawn from the findings of this study. This section will discuss implications for teachers and for research in regards to word writing fluency, accuracy, and complexity.

Word Writing Fluency

Although the quantitative results did not show statistically significant results for one-on-one tutoring on the word writing abilities of fluency, findings do indicate that children in primary grades, especially grades one and two, made gains in word writing fluency despite the tutor group.

Implications for teachers. Word recognition is critical to reading and writing with fluency (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). Classroom instruction should incorporate word study

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in various ways. Explicit instruction in word work or demonstration of the generative nature of words (how to get to new words using what children know about words and word parts) and the reciprocity of reading and writing are essential (Bear et al., 2003, Taberski, 2000).

Teachers should incorporate massive amounts of text read by students at their appropriate independent and instructional levels to reinforce automatic word recognition and develop strategies for noticing and learning new words. In addition, books read aloud to students would expose them to new words and different ways to use words.

Teachers should plan daily, authentic writing activities. Writing activities encourage children to notice finer details of print and develop phonemic awareness and sequential organizations of text (Schmitt et al., 2005).

Teachers should administer word writing assessments, such as Leal’s (2005/2006) CAFÉ, frequently and ongoing as a check on each student’s progress in writing more words. Teachers can analyze the results to inform their instruction in word study, demonstration, writing conferences, and book choice for students, as well as track the progress of the student’s writing.

Implications for research. Findings from this study regarding the impact of one-on-one tutoring show that students identified as the lowest-performing can make gains in word writing fluency commensurate with their average-performing peers. This may help to justify the importance of literacy intervention as a preventive measure for children that are at-risk for reading and writing failure. Individualized instruction that identifies the strengths and needs of struggling students and provides high levels of expertise and intensity to unravel confusions in literacy learning and build an effective processing

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system that problem solves and grows should be further researched. Studies on the effectiveness of one-on-one tutoring should incorporate random assignment of students to treatment and control groups. Additionally, studies on the effectiveness of one-on-one tutoring should involve larger numbers of student participants.

Word Writing Accuracy

Although the quantitative results did not show statistically significant results for one-on-one tutoring on the word writing abilities of accuracy, findings do indicate that children in primary grades, especially grades one and two, made gains in word writing accuracy despite the tutor group.

Implications for teachers. Gains in word writing accuracy are highly correlated to gains in word writing fluency. Thus, implications for teachers regarding word writing accuracy are very similar to implications for teachers regarding word writing fluency. Quality classroom instruction that emphasizes speaking, reading, and writing is vital to developing word knowledge and usage (Clay, 2004).

Teachers should incorporate instructional approaches related to building fluency with words and known word parts. Words that students know how to spell correctly make up their personal writing vocabularies (Clay, 2001). These vocabularies of known words should be used to teach new words for both reading and writing purposes.

Implications for research. Analyses of existing studies on the Word Writing CAFÉ (Leal, 2005/2006) reveal commonly-written words. These words can be used for instructional purposes to build word stores or as a meter of teacher’s instruction. Additional research on high-frequency word development and sight word development in early grades should continue and inform classroom instruction.

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Further research, particularly with older students, on the development of accuracy in spelling of longer words in isolation and within the context of authentic writing, should be explored and studied. More information is needed in regards to making gains in word writing fluency and accuracy as compared to making gains in word writing complexity.





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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 2 - Assignment (10/04/2009)



Week 3 - Assignment (10/11/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 3



Weekly Papers - 1 Question



Reflection Question:



1. Choose two non-fiction books for children and identify the expository structures of each. Then decide on the best strategy for activating prior knowledge for each and give your rationale.



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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 3 - Assignment (10/11/2009)



Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 4.



Weekly Papers - 2 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1. What is 'reciprocal' teaching? (Focus on procedures & possible uses).



2. List the seven strategies that help to construct meaning. Give an example of each strategy.





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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)



Week 5 - Assignment (10/25/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 5.



Weekly Papers - 2 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1. What are the elements that lead to successful independent reading?



2. What are the components of a balanced literacy program? Briefly explain each component.





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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 5 - Assignment (10/25/2009)



Week 5 - Reaction Paper 10/25/2009)

Please read the article on the following website and write a reaction paper no longer than 2 pages (double spaced).



Website :http://edwize.org/decoding-grammar

>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 5 - Reaction Paper 10/25/2009)



Week 6 - Assignment (11/01/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 6 & 7 .



Weekly Papers - 4 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1 How do students acquire vocabulary?



2. What are the elements of effective vocabulary development? .



3. How would students respond to literature? Describe the categories.



4. Describe the procedures that promote responding to literature.



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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 6 - Assignment (11/01/2009)



Week 7: Assignment (11/08/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 8 & 9.



Weekly Papers - 4 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1 Explain, giving at least 5 reasons, why reading and writing have to be taught together ?



2. What is the difference between remediation and intervention? How does this difference change the way instruction is planned and carried out?



3. Distinguish between the strategies and skills the classroom teacher needs to teach to struggling readers and those required to be taught to all students, including struggling readers. How would one change the way a required skill or strategy is taught to a group of struggling readers?



4. Review the 2 levels of text needed for struggling readers; grade level and developmentally appropriate. How can a classroom teacher provide instruction for struggling readers in each of these types of text?





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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 7: Assignment (11/08/2009)



Week 8: Assignment (11/15/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 10.



Weekly Papers - 3 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1 What are the guidelines for organizing and managing a balanced literacy classroom?



2. Why do teachers need to use leveled/developmentally appropriate books for the students in their class?



3. Why is it important for teachers to keep records of every student in the class?









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>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 8: Assignment (11/15/2009)



Week 9: Assignment (11/29/2009)

Read Textbook Chapters 11.



Weekly Papers - 2 Questions



Reflection Questions:



1 What is assessment? How does it relate to evaluation? Describe.



2. Describe a formal and informal assessment.

>> View/Complete Assignment: Week 9: Assignment (11/29/2009)



Final Paper - Literacy Lesson (12/06/2009)

Prepare a literacy lesson, complete with mini lessons as per text book. You should report the development, application, and analysis of one or several lessons/activities to teach a literacy lesson. Describe why those activities/lessons can help students to develop literacy skills and construct meaning. To support your rationale, use references from what you have learned in the course and from other sources in the APA format. Discuss each activity, if you have more than one, in detail.



Your lesson must include the description of:



a. The target population the characteristics of the learners for whom the activity is planned.



b. The prerequisites (if necessary), the specific objective(s) of the activity, and the content and language standards to which they relate. If you are not a classroom teacher, specify the output expected from this activity.



c. The role of the teacher and the students.



d. The resources, materials, and other elements that will be used to create a learning environment that addresses the needs of the population.



e. List the principles of learning or the standards and all the references used to develop the lesson.

>> View/Complete Assignment: Final Paper - Literacy Lesson (12/06/2009)

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