Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Critique on Teaching Life Skills

Article Critique- N - Assignment
Instructions

Reflection Questions: 1. Summarize article and Reflect.

I had a few articles which were of interest which I brought to the attention of our class, and one article that I shared was about the characteristics, strengths, and challenges of students with Spectrum Disorders. In addition, I shared an article from the CEC email that was quite relevant. The article showed a positive trend of education administrators to integrate and accept children with Special Needs and the importance of teaching general life and coping skills.


One specific challenge that children on the spectrum is they lack the practice and training of social and life skills. Often, it is difficult for them to deal with adversity and to appropriately express their feelings in a more socially acceptable way. Transition from activity to activity also poses a challenge. The challenge of fear and anxiety, and the challenge of not knowing how to deal with these feelings, is a skill that all students who have not practiced, must be taught and reinforced.


The need for practice of this skill and interaction for children on the spectrum are that much more important. “General life skills” which include , learning proper behavior and response to situations is a major portion of a curriculum, that should be taught to each student (and of course, reinforced at home) whether a student in exceptional or general education.


When I read the quote from the opening of the article from Plumstead Superintendent Mark Demareo , it made me reflect upon what I had learned in a Philosophy of Education class, about Thomas Jefferson and the importance of “ Education for the Citizenry (Masses)”. Thomas Jefferson, was a highly educated man , and a student of the Enlightenment era. He wanted to create a society where all people would free to pursue the benefits of “ life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. Many don’t know that he was the major contributor for the right to a public education and also set the ground rules for the first Public University (U of VA.), an educational institution that still stands today.

The general theme of Jeffersonian philosophy, was that it was imperative to have citizens, that are given the opportunity for enlightenment and education, for with a proper public education, they become responsible and productive citizens. The more opportunities of education to the citizenry, the more apt that these citizens become more responsible and beneficial to the current society. The philosophy also expresses the themes in the idioms “ Teaching a Person to Fish – You’ll Eat For A Lifetime” or “ Helping Others To Help Themselves”.

The quote used in the article , not only refers to teaching life skills to Special Needs students, but can apply to every situation. I would like to share it with you.


"The main objective of the program is to prepare our students for the important steps in their lives," "As they take the journey to adulthood, we will support and extend their efforts to become responsible, productive young adults in their community."
Plumsted Superintendent of Schools Mark DeMareo said.


The role of society is to model, support, teach, and reinforce younger citizens to become responsible, productive young adults in their community.


This is a major concept that I take away from this article, other than the importance of creating a curriculum for all students, not only exceptional students, to model, each and reinforce acceptable life skills.

The 12- Plus program is a new life-skills curriculum /pilot program offered for students with special needs at NJ’s New Egypt High School . The objective for its current student population which caters students classified as special-needs, is to keep the students educated in their own neighborhood school to the greatest extent possible as they begin their transition to adult life and productive citizenship in the community. The classroom which is termed “ The Learning Cottage”-provides the student with functional academics in literacy and math, activities of daily living, technology, related arts, social skills, and pre-vocational skills.

The 12- Plus Program will assist students who remain in special education until they are 21 make an easier transition to life in the workplace and the community, and includes an area set up like an apartment to teach life skills. A benefit of this effort is to keep students with special needs in schools near their homes.


In conclusion, it is up to our society, not only schools, but our parents, and our places of work, to shape our youth,-“ to teach them how to fish”, so that they may be responsible and productive members of society.

________________________________________________________________



http://tritown.gmnews.com/news/2009/1029/schools/034.html
Schools October 29, 2009 Search Archives:

Special-needs students being taught life skills
BY DAVE BENJAMIN Staff Writer


PLUMSTED — New Egypt High School has introduced a 12-Plus program for special-needs students.

"The main objective of the program is to prepare our students for the important steps in their lives," Plumsted Superintendent of Schools Mark DeMareo said. "As they take the journey to adulthood, we will support and extend their efforts to become responsible, productive young adults in their community."

The new program has been created to meet the needs of the first group of specialneeds students from New Egypt High School who will be remaining in the Plumsted School District until they are 21 years old as provided by the New Jersey Special Education Code, the superintendent explained.

Keeping students in their own neighborhood school to the greatest extent possible as they begin their transition to adult life and productive citizenship in the community is the vision of the school district, DeMareo said.


"Our commitment is to inclusive education for all students," he said.

New Egypt High School Principal Tom Farrell said he is proud of the new program.

"The new in-house high school 12-Plus program is fantastic," Farrell said. "Our staff is instilling life-long learning skills to our students. These life skills will prove invaluable to our students in the future."

Special education teacher Barbara Weaver and paraprofessional Craig Conk work in the special-needs classroom, which is called the Learning Cottage.

They provide their students with functional academics in literacy and math, activities of daily living, technology, related arts, social skills and pre-vocational skills, all of which follow the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards.

Plumsted Supervisor of Special Services Jodie Greene said she thinks the school district has a unique program.

Greene said the Learning Cottage is set up to resemble an apartment so the students can gain firsthand knowledge about living independently. These skills are taught in a real-life setting so that the probability of carrying over the skills to reality is significantly increased, Greene said.

One day each week, students attend the Career Pathways Program at the Dorothy B. Hersh High School in Tinton Falls, Monmouth County. The Dorothy B. Hersh High School is a fully accredited private school for students with developmental disabilities between the ages of 14 and 21.

In this program, the special-needs students experience career reading and math, involvement in community-based instruction (which may include volunteering at community sites), attending field trips, and participation in structured learning experiences in retail, food service, janitorial work and day care.

The students are learning how to engage in computer job searches and how to complete a job application, said Greene.

Educators at the Dorothy B. Hersh High School work with educators in the Plumsted School District to locate appropriate employment for students who stay in New Egypt.

Monday, November 23, 2009

Education World School Attitude

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Home > Administrator's Desk Channel > Administrator's Desk Archive >Leadership > School Administrators Article

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ARTICLE



Is Your School's Culture
Toxic or Positive?


From time to time, Education World updates and reposts a previously published article that we think might be of interest to administrators. We hope you find this recently updated article to be of value.

"School culture is the set of norms, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, symbols and stories that make up the 'persona' of the school," says Dr. Kent D. Peterson, a professor in the Department of Educational Administration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Education World recently talked with Peterson about the differences between positive and negative school cultures and how administrators and teachers can create a positive culture in their schools. Included: Tips for creating a positive school culture.

"The culture of a school consists primarily of the underlying norm values and beliefs that teachers and administrators hold about teaching and learning," according to Dr. Kent D. Peterson. That culture is also composed of "traditions and ceremonies schools hold to build community and reinforce their values," says Peterson, a professor in the Department of Educational Administration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and co-author of Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership.

Every school has underlying assumptions about what staff members will discuss at meetings, which teaching techniques work well, how amenable the staff is to change, and how critical staff development is, adds Peterson. That core set of beliefs underlies the school's overall culture.

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE?
In a school with a positive culture, Peterson says, "[T]here's an informal network of heroes and heroines and an informal grapevine that passes along information about what's going on in the school... [A] set of values that supports professional development of teachers, a sense of responsibility for student learning, and a positive, caring atmosphere" exist.

On the other hand, in a toxic school environment, "teacher relations are often conflictual, the staff doesn't believe in the ability of the students to succeed, and a generally negative attitude" prevails, notes Peterson.

Staff and administrators in a positive school culture believe they have the ability to achieve their ambitions. Their counterparts operating in a negative school environment lack faith in the possibility of realizing their visions.

School culture has a profound effect on staff development. "It affects attitudes toward spending time to improve instruction, motivation to attend workshops, and the [activities] people choose to participate in," Peterson says.

GANADO PRIMARY SCHOOL
In the article Positive or Negative? (Journal of Staff Development, Summer 2002), Peterson writes about the exemplary school culture at Ganado (Arizona) Primary School. Located in one of the poorest counties in the United States, the school has not always boasted a vibrant professional community. "Over time," Peterson wrote, "Sigmund Boloz, the principal, and his staff developed a strong, professional culture that supports staff and student learning."

Toxic or Positive?

Which term describes your school's culture?
A toxic school culture
* blames students for lack of progress
* discourages collaboration
* breeds hostility among staff.

A positive school culture
* celebrates successes
* emphasizes accomplishment and collaboration
* fosters a commitment to staff and student learning.


In that article, Peterson described a school culture in which staff, students, principal, and community members are all seen as learners. All teachers have been trained in a reading intervention program called CLIP (Collaborative Literacy Intervention Project). Teachers are supported in their use of the program and are invited to regular "curriculum conversations" to discuss new ideas and share experiences.

At Ganado, "[T]he presence of a staff professional library symbolically communicates the importance of learning," Peterson continued. "The school has amassed 4,000 professional books and 400 videotapes on effective teaching and other professional issues." In addition, the school hosts an academy for parents each year to help enhance parenting abilities.

"Staff members feel responsible for improving their own skills and knowledge to help students learn," concluded Peterson. "They regularly recount stories of successfully using new ideas. The staff expects and encourages collaboration and sharing. In short, professional learning is valued in the culture."

CHANGING A TOXIC CULTURE
According to Peterson, schools with a negative, or toxic, culture

lack a clear sense of purpose
have norms that reinforce inertia
blame students for lack of progress
discourage collaboration
often have actively hostile relations among staff.

In fighting such a negative culture, Peterson tells Education World, "to begin with, the staff must assess the underlying norms and values of the culture and then as a group activity, work to change them to have a more positive, supportive culture."

WHAT CAN ADMINISTRATORS DO?
Principals need to "read the school," Peterson suggests. They must talk to storytellers on the staff to discern what kind of history the school has. Staff and administrators need to examine what they have learned about the school culture, and then they must ask two questions:

What aspects of the culture are positive and should be reinforced?
What aspects of the culture are negative and harmful and should be changed?
In "Positive or Negative?" Peterson shared ways in which principals and staff leaders can nurture the school culture's positive aspects. They include the following:
Celebrate successes in staff meetings and ceremonies.
Tell stories of accomplishment and collaboration whenever there's an opportunity.
Use clear, shared language created during professional development to foster a commitment to staff and student learning.

When administrators and staff collaborate in a strong push to foster an environment in which learning blooms, Peterson concluded, they will decrease such negatives as student misbehavior and faculty grousing and create an overall positive school culture with a flourishing staff and students.

WANT TO LEARN MORE?
Positive or Negative?
The culture of a school is always active, either positively or negatively influencing adult and student learning, Kent D. Peterson, Ph.D., suggests in this Journal of Staff Development article. "Being able to understand and shape the culture is key to a school's success in promoting staff and student learning."

Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership
A brief summary of this book, says authors Terrence E. Deal and Kent D. Peterson, shows how school leaders can use the power of school culture to create a vibrant, cooperative spirit and a school "persona."

Shaping School Culture Fieldbook
By Terrence E. Deal and Kent D. Peterson (Jossey-Bass, 2002), this book provides solid methods, questions to contemplate, and group activities for a school's staff to use in assessing and changing its culture.



Article by Sharon Cromwell
Education World®
Copyright © 2009 Education World


Originally published 7/30/2002
Last updated 05/25/2009

































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Home > Administrator's Desk Channel > Administrator's Desk Archive >Leadership > School Administrators Article

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ARTICLE



Is Your School's Culture
Toxic or Positive?


From time to time, Education World updates and reposts a previously published article that we think might be of interest to administrators. We hope you find this recently updated article to be of value.

"School culture is the set of norms, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, symbols and stories that make up the 'persona' of the school," says Dr. Kent D. Peterson, a professor in the Department of Educational Administration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Education World recently talked with Peterson about the differences between positive and negative school cultures and how administrators and teachers can create a positive culture in their schools. Included: Tips for creating a positive school culture.

"The culture of a school consists primarily of the underlying norm values and beliefs that teachers and administrators hold about teaching and learning," according to Dr. Kent D. Peterson. That culture is also composed of "traditions and ceremonies schools hold to build community and reinforce their values," says Peterson, a professor in the Department of Educational Administration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and co-author of Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership.

Every school has underlying assumptions about what staff members will discuss at meetings, which teaching techniques work well, how amenable the staff is to change, and how critical staff development is, adds Peterson. That core set of beliefs underlies the school's overall culture.

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE?
In a school with a positive culture, Peterson says, "[T]here's an informal network of heroes and heroines and an informal grapevine that passes along information about what's going on in the school... [A] set of values that supports professional development of teachers, a sense of responsibility for student learning, and a positive, caring atmosphere" exist.

On the other hand, in a toxic school environment, "teacher relations are often conflictual, the staff doesn't believe in the ability of the students to succeed, and a generally negative attitude" prevails, notes Peterson.

Staff and administrators in a positive school culture believe they have the ability to achieve their ambitions. Their counterparts operating in a negative school environment lack faith in the possibility of realizing their visions.

School culture has a profound effect on staff development. "It affects attitudes toward spending time to improve instruction, motivation to attend workshops, and the [activities] people choose to participate in," Peterson says.

GANADO PRIMARY SCHOOL
In the article Positive or Negative? (Journal of Staff Development, Summer 2002), Peterson writes about the exemplary school culture at Ganado (Arizona) Primary School. Located in one of the poorest counties in the United States, the school has not always boasted a vibrant professional community. "Over time," Peterson wrote, "Sigmund Boloz, the principal, and his staff developed a strong, professional culture that supports staff and student learning."

Toxic or Positive?

Which term describes your school's culture?
A toxic school culture
* blames students for lack of progress
* discourages collaboration
* breeds hostility among staff.

A positive school culture
* celebrates successes
* emphasizes accomplishment and collaboration
* fosters a commitment to staff and student learning.


In that article, Peterson described a school culture in which staff, students, principal, and community members are all seen as learners. All teachers have been trained in a reading intervention program called CLIP (Collaborative Literacy Intervention Project). Teachers are supported in their use of the program and are invited to regular "curriculum conversations" to discuss new ideas and share experiences.

At Ganado, "[T]he presence of a staff professional library symbolically communicates the importance of learning," Peterson continued. "The school has amassed 4,000 professional books and 400 videotapes on effective teaching and other professional issues." In addition, the school hosts an academy for parents each year to help enhance parenting abilities.

"Staff members feel responsible for improving their own skills and knowledge to help students learn," concluded Peterson. "They regularly recount stories of successfully using new ideas. The staff expects and encourages collaboration and sharing. In short, professional learning is valued in the culture."

CHANGING A TOXIC CULTURE
According to Peterson, schools with a negative, or toxic, culture

lack a clear sense of purpose
have norms that reinforce inertia
blame students for lack of progress
discourage collaboration
often have actively hostile relations among staff.

In fighting such a negative culture, Peterson tells Education World, "to begin with, the staff must assess the underlying norms and values of the culture and then as a group activity, work to change them to have a more positive, supportive culture."

WHAT CAN ADMINISTRATORS DO?
Principals need to "read the school," Peterson suggests. They must talk to storytellers on the staff to discern what kind of history the school has. Staff and administrators need to examine what they have learned about the school culture, and then they must ask two questions:

What aspects of the culture are positive and should be reinforced?
What aspects of the culture are negative and harmful and should be changed?
In "Positive or Negative?" Peterson shared ways in which principals and staff leaders can nurture the school culture's positive aspects. They include the following:
Celebrate successes in staff meetings and ceremonies.
Tell stories of accomplishment and collaboration whenever there's an opportunity.
Use clear, shared language created during professional development to foster a commitment to staff and student learning.

When administrators and staff collaborate in a strong push to foster an environment in which learning blooms, Peterson concluded, they will decrease such negatives as student misbehavior and faculty grousing and create an overall positive school culture with a flourishing staff and students.

WANT TO LEARN MORE?
Positive or Negative?
The culture of a school is always active, either positively or negatively influencing adult and student learning, Kent D. Peterson, Ph.D., suggests in this Journal of Staff Development article. "Being able to understand and shape the culture is key to a school's success in promoting staff and student learning."

Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership
A brief summary of this book, says authors Terrence E. Deal and Kent D. Peterson, shows how school leaders can use the power of school culture to create a vibrant, cooperative spirit and a school "persona."

Shaping School Culture Fieldbook
By Terrence E. Deal and Kent D. Peterson (Jossey-Bass, 2002), this book provides solid methods, questions to contemplate, and group activities for a school's staff to use in assessing and changing its culture.



Article by Sharon Cromwell
Education World®
Copyright © 2009 Education World


Originally published 7/30/2002
Last updated 05/25/2009

































Fundraisers & Fundraising Ideas:
Earn 90% Profit!

Leading Trade and
Vocational Career
savings.

Online Degree Directory

Walden University
M.S. in Education
Degrees Online

Online Schools
University Degrees
College Programs

Grants for Public
& Private Schools
Free Information

APUS
Online Degree
For Educators



Tips for Teachers
Resource Cards
At No Cost to You


Travel to Europe
and Earn Credits on
CreativityWorkshop






--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Copyright 1996-2009 by Education World, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Home | About Us | Reprint Rights | Help | Site Guide | Partners | Contact Us | Privacy Policy

Saturday, October 31, 2009

Stairway To Gilligans Island- madmusic

Songs Backwards http://jeffmilner.com/backmasking.htm

http://jeffmilner.com/backmasking.htm

Falling for Fall Lyrics Moose A Moose and Zee Nick Jr

lling for Fall Lyrics Moose A Moose and Zee Nick Jr
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f38SlRh0-Ic&feature=related
I Don’t Like Candy Corn
By Moose A Moose and Zee from Nick Jr.
C G C F C
I don’t like candy corn, No, I don’t like candy corn.
I like lots of other things , But , I don’t like candy corn,

Give it to my brother
Give it to my sister
I hope I get something else to eat
When I dress up to trick-or treat
I would even eat my own feet
I bet they taste much better!

I don’t like candy corn, No, I don’t like candy corn.
I like really love Halloween , But , I don’t like candy corn,

Website:
http://dailynoggin.com
http://www.noggin.com/shows/movemusic.ph...
Personal Information:
I don't like candy corn. I only want a candy cane this year.

I'd love to share a sarsaparilla with a good natured goat or a friendly gorilla.
Personal Interests:
Rhyming, puzzle time, reading, playing harmonica, hanging with Zee.
http://www.nickjr.com/printables/falling-for-fall-song-lyrics.jhtml
Falling For Fall
Outside the leaves are falling. The temperature is falling too. Yes Autumn is upon ius. But you see, I’m falling too.

SUNG:
Oh I feel like I’m falling for fall. Im not prevaricating. Nor am I exaggerating. Fall has got me in its grasp. It must be said.

Autumns such a pleasant season
You must see all the trees in.
Their blazing colors: orange, gold and red.

Should I write fall a love letter,
Telling how I feel better,
Every time the season comes around each year.

Or maybe I’ll just go on
‘bout how nature puts a show on
As a prelude to all kinds of holiday cheer!!!

I feel like I’m falling for fall
These are feelings of elation
Mixed with some anticipation
When I think of all the fun there is in store!!!

And my heart just goes to thumpin’
Thinkin ‘bout piles of leaves I’ll jump in
Its no wonder that it’s autumn I adore!!!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f38SlRh0-Ic&feature=related

MTA _

Kingston Trio 500 Miles lyrics

Hedy West
If you miss the train I'm on, you will know that I am gone, you can hear the whistle blow a hundred miles.
A hundred miles, a hundred miles, a hundred miles, a hundred miles, you can hear the whistle blow a hundred miles.
Lord, I'm one, Lord, I'm two, Lord, I'm three, Lord, I'm four, Lord, I'm five hundred miles a way from home.
Away from home, away from home, away from home, away from home, Lord, I'm five hundred miles away from home.
Not a shirt on my back, not a penny to my name. Lord, I can't go back home this-a way.
This-a way, this-a way, this-a way, this-a way, Lord, I can't go back home this-a way. (Interlude, repeat first verse)
You can hear the whistle blow a hundred miles

SONGS THAT TEACHhttp://www.songsforteaching.com/holiday/groundhogday/Punxatawney_Phil.php

http://www.songsforteaching.com/holiday/groundhogday/Punxatawney_Phil.php

Every February second at Gobbler’s Knob,
Phil the groundhog does his job
Predicting how long winter will last
Thousands come for the big forecast

Now, the MC’s spiffy in his tall top hat
Gives a speech, and the people clap.
Up pops Phil from his groundhog hole
Crowd is hushed-- there’s a loud drum roll!

Now, if Punxatawney Phil sees his shadow
Winter’s gonna be another six weeks long
But if he don’t see nada
Soon the Robin’s gonna sing her song!

(REPEAT CHORUS WITH KIDS SINGING)

The groundhog whispers in the MC's ear
As everybody strains to hear
Top Hat nods then he shouts the news:
"Six More Weeks of Winter Blues!"

(Oh, no!)Punxatawney Phil saw his shadow
Winter's gonna be another six weeks long!
He's got foolproof data
Hundred years and never once been wrong!
(REPEAT CHORUS WITH KIDS SINGING)

(Instrumental over verse)

Now, if Punxatawney Phil sees his shadow
Winter's gonna be another six weeks long
But if he don't see nada
Soon the Robin's gonna sing her song!

(REPEAT CHORUS WITH KIDS SINGING)

SONGS THAT TEACH

I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat apples and bananas.
I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat apples and bananas.

I like to ate, ate, ate, ate. I like to ate aipples and banainais.
I like to ate, ate, ate, ate. I like to ate aipples and banainais.

I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat eapples and banenes.
I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat eapples and banenes.

I like to ite, ite, ite, ite. I like to ite ipples and baninis.
I like to ite, ite, ite, ite. I like to ite ipples and baninis.

I like to ote, ote, ote, ote. I like to ote opples and banonos.
I like to ote, ote, ote, ote. I like to ote opples and banonos.

I like to ute, ute, ute, ute. I like to ute uepples and banunus.
I like to ute, ute, ute, ute. I like to ute uepples and banunus.

I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat apples and bananas.
I like to eat, eat, eat, eat. I like to eat apples and bananas.

ELL Learners- Literacy Article- Colorin Colorado

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Teachers who work with English as a Second Language learners will find ESL/ESOL/ELL/EFL reading/writing skill-building children's books, stories, activities, ideas, strategies to help PreK-3, 4-8, and 9-12 students learn to read.




A bilingual site for families and educators of English language learnersReading 101 for English Language Learners
By: Kristina Robertson (2009)
In this article:
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Teaching reading IS rocket science.
~Louisa Moats

Learning to read is a little bit like learning to ride a bike — while you are balancing a person on the handle-bars, holding a pole, spinning plates, and focusing on the destination at the same time!

Reading is a complicated process, which is why so many children struggle to become strong readers. The process of learning to read can be particularly challenging for English language learners (ELLs), especially if they have little or no formal schooling and they have not learned to read in their native language.

In this article, I will highlight ELL instructional strategies based on the five components of reading as outlined in Teaching Children to Read by the National Reading Panel (2000). This report is a study of research-based best practices in reading instruction and it focuses on the following five instructional areas: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension.

Each of these topics is explored below, and each section includes:

a definition
an explanation of why the component is important when learning to read
challenges that ELLs may face
strategies for ELL instruction
You will find references to more in-depth information about ELLs and effective reading instruction from Colorín Colorado and Reading Rockets throughout the article, as well as in the Hotlinks.

Phonemic Awareness and English Language Learners
Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first two years of school instruction. Sometimes it is nearly impossible, however, for speakers of a second language to "hear" and say sounds in the language they are learning.

Perhaps you have had a student who simply could not master a particular sound in English. Chances are good that that sound was not a part of the student's native language, and so the student didn't have the ability to produce that sound.

I experienced this when learning Sinhala in the Peace Corps. There was a "th" sound that seemed to be a combination "d" and "th," and no matter how hard I tried, I could not hear or produce the sound correctly. I knew which words it belonged in, but I couldn't say it. The native Sinhala speakers struggled to make sense of my pronunciation. ELLs may have similar difficulties with sounds that are not a part of their native language.

Phonemic Awareness: Challenges and Strategies
What: The ability to hear and manipulate the different sounds in our language.
Why it matters: Phonemic awareness is the foundation for spelling and word recognition skills.

Challenges for ELLs
Sound recognition and production
Students may not be able to "hear" or produce a new sound in a second language.

Students who cannot hear and work with the phonemes of spoken words will have a difficult time learning how to relate these phonemes to letters when they see them in written words.

Strategies for ELLs
Model production of the sound.
Spend a few minutes at the beginning of class or in small groups demonstrating and reinforcing the correct production of the sound.

Help beginning readers learn to identify sounds in short words.
Have students practice identifying the sounds in the beginning, middle, and end of these words. You may wish to use words that begin with a consonant, have a short vowel, and end in a consonant (CVC words) such as mat, top, and bus.

One very effective method is having students match pictures of words that have the same beginning, middle, or ending sound.

Be careful to use only words that students know in English!


Phonics and English Language Learners
Phonics instruction aims to help new readers understand that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.

Students will benefit from learning and practicing sounds and symbols, including blended combinations. This is fairly common in the primary grades and ELLs may pick up the code very quickly and appear to be fairly proficient readers. However, it's important to remember that knowledge of phonics and decoding does not ensure good comprehension.

Phonics: Challenges and Strategies
What: The relationship between a sound and its corresponding written letter.
Why it matters: Reading development is dependent on the understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language.

Challenges for ELLs
Limited literacy skills in native language
Many educators believe that students only need to learn to read once. Once the concept of matching a symbol with a sound has been learned, it can be applied to new languages.

Students who have learned to read in their native language have a distinct advantage because they were able to learn this concept with familiar sounds and words.

Students who have not learned to read in their native language, however, may struggle to put together the sound/symbol correspondence concept, new words, and new sounds all at once.

Unfamiliar vocabulary words
It is difficult for students to distinguish phonetic components in new vocabulary words.

Preteaching vocabulary is an important part of good phonics instruction with ELLs so that students aren't trying to figure out new vocabulary items out of context.

Strategies for ELLs
Teach phonics in context.
Using literature and content material, you can introduce and reinforce:

letter recognition
beginning and ending sounds
blends
rhyming words
silent letters
homonyms

Use hands-on activities to help teach letter-sound relationships.
This can include using manipulatives such as counters, sound boxes, and magnetic letters.

Have students write for sound.
Say a short sentence that includes one or more words that include the target phonics feature(s). Ask students to listen carefully and then write what they heard.

This activity trains students to listen for the individual sounds in words and represent them phonetically in their writing.

Help students make a connection between their first language and English.
For students with strong native language literacy skills, help them understand that the process of sounding out words is the same across languages.

Explain some letters may make the same or similar sounds in both languages. Knowing this can help Spanish-dominant students, for example, as they learn to decode words in English.


Vocabulary and English Language Learners
Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read, as well as in understanding what is read.

As students learn to read more advanced texts, they must learn the meaning of new words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. For ELLs, vocabulary development is especially important as students' develop academic language.

Vocabulary: Challenges and Strategies
What: Recognizing and understanding words in relation to the context of the reading passage.
Why: Understanding vocabulary words is a key step in reading comprehension. The more words a child knows, the better he or she will understand the text.

Challenges for ELLs
Limited comprehension
Beginning readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they sound out. If those words aren't a part of a student's vocabulary, however, it will make it much harder to understand the text.

Consider, for example, what happens when a beginning reader comes to the word dig in a book. As she begins to figure out the sounds represented by the letters d-i-g, the reader recognizes that the sounds make up a very familiar word that she has heard and said many times.

As a result, it is harder for ELLs figure out words that are not already part of their speaking (oral) vocabulary.

Limited vocabulary foundation
The average native English speaker enters kindergarten knowing at least 5,000 words. The average ELL may know 5,000 words in his or her native language, but very few words in English.

While native speakers are continuously learning new words, ELLs are still catching up on their basic vocabulary foundation.

Limited academic vocabulary
A student's maximum level of reading comprehension is determined by his or her knowledge of words. This word knowledge allows students to comprehend text, including the text found in content-area textbooks, on assessments, and in printed material such as newspapers and magazines. Without a strong foundation of academic vocabulary, ELLs won't be able to access the material they are expected to master.

Strategies
Pre-teach vocabulary.
It is important to give students as much exposure and experience with new vocabulary words as possible before asking students to use them in a lesson or activity. Remember that vocabulary lists in textbooks are often created with English speakers in mind.

Select words that will support the reader's understanding of the story or text, as well as for other phrases and connectors that affect comprehension (even though, except, etc.). You can pre-teach vocabulary by using English as a second language (ESL) methods such as:

Role playing or pantomiming
Using gestures
Showing real objects
Pointing to pictures
Doing quick drawings on the board
Using the Spanish equivalent and then asking students to say the word in English
Providing a student-friendly definition
Using graphic organizers

Focus on cognates.
Cognates are words in different languages that are derived from the same original word or root. Cognates are related words like family and familia, and conversation and conversación. False cognates do exist (embarazada in Spanish means pregnant, not embarrassed), but they are the exception to the rule.

About 40% of all English words have cognates in Spanish! This is an obvious bridge to the English language for Spanish speakers if the student is made aware of how to use this resource. Encourage Spanish speakers to connect words in the two languages and try to decipher text based on this existing knowledge.

Give students an opportunity to practice using new words.
As the teacher, you can explicitly teach word meanings to improve comprehension. However, to know a word means knowing it in all of the following dimensions:

The ability to define a word
The ability to recognize when to use that word
Knowledge of its multiple meanings
The ability to decode and spell that word
The ability to use different definitions word accurately in different contexts
The only way to make sure students understand a new word is to have them produce it themselves either orally or in writing.

I taught a summer school unit on habitats and healthy environments, and every student had to learn the phrase, "Reduce, reuse, recycle." Over the course of four weeks I gave students many opportunities to use those words to describe what we were doing: "We are reusing the grocery bag," or "We reused the scratch paper."


Fluency and English Language Learners
Fluency is a tricky area when it comes to ELL reading instruction. For native English speakers, fluency and reading comprehension often share a strong correlation because fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time.

This is not always the case for ELLs, however. Many ELLs can be deceptively fast and accurate in their reading because they are good readers in their primary language and have strong decoding skills. Yet they may demonstrate little understanding of the text, and hearing the text out loud may not necessarily provide a step towards comprehension as it is likely to do for native speakers. Learn more about ways to effectively assess ELLs' reading accuracy and rate in Assessing Fluency.

Fluency: Challenges and Strategies
What: The ability to read a text accurately and quickly.
Why it matters: Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.

Challenges for ELLs
Inaccurate indicator of ELLs' comprehension

It is not unusual for an ELL student to read a passage beautifully and then not be able answer more than a couple of comprehension questions correctly. Decoding skills (sounding out words) and comprehending the text are two different skills.

Limited benefit from hearing texts read aloud
Native speakers who are not strong decoders can often comprehend text that is read to them better than text that they read themselves. That's because when someone else is doing the reading, they can focus on meaning without having to struggle to get the words off the page.

With ELLs, however, comprehension problems tend to be associated with limited vocabulary and limited background knowledge. Thus, listening to text read by someone else won't enhance comprehension.

Strategies for ELLs
Balance fluency and comprehension.
For ELLs, try not to provide instruction in fluency that focuses primarily on developing students' reading rates at the expense of reading with expression, meaning, and comprehension.

Students may read fast, but with insufficient comprehension. Fluency without comprehension will require instructional intervention in vocabulary and comprehension skills.

Give students a chance to practice reading out loud.
In order to improve fluency in English, provide independent level texts that students can practice again and again, or read a short passage and then have the student immediately read it back to you.

Have the student practice reading a passage with a certain emotion or to emphasize expression, intonation, and inflection based on punctuation.

Allow students to practice reading along with taped text.
This is an excellent way for them to learn appropriate pronunciation and phrasing.


Comprehension
Comprehension is the understanding and interpretation of what is read. To be able to accurately understand written material, children need to be able to 1) decode what they read; 2) make connections between what they read and what they already know; and 3) think deeply about what they have read.

Comprehension can be the most difficult skill to master, however. ELLs at all levels of English proficiency, and literacy development, will benefit from explicit instruction in comprehension skills along with other skills because improved comprehension will not only help them in language arts and ESL classes — it will help them in content-area classes and in daily activities. It will also improve the chances of their interest in reading for pleasure.

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Content Learning and Finding the Main Idea offer more ideas for improving text comprehension.

Comprehension: Challenges and Strategies
What: Understanding the meaning of the text.
Why it matters: Comprehension is the reason for reading. Readers who have strong comprehension are able to draw conclusions about what they read.

Challenges for ELLs
Limited ability to read for meaning
ELLs who struggle with comprehension may read more slowly, have a hard time following a text or story, have a hard time picking out important events, and feel frustrated. They may also have problems mastering new concepts in their content-area classes or completing assignments and assessments because they cannot comprehend the texts and tests for these subjects.

Strategies for ELLs
Build background knowledge.
One way to build background knowledge is through a book, unit or chapter "walk-through." ELLs can preview the information in the text and begin to make connections with the knowledge they have.

If the text is about a fair, the student may note that the pictures are similar to fairs they have attended in the past and they can think of the kinds of experiences a person has in that environment.

If it is a science textbook the student may see visuals of animals or processes that remind them of concepts they may have learned or are somewhat familiar with.

Check comprehension frequently.
As students read, ask them open-ended questions about what they are reading, and informally test students' ability to sequence material from sentences or a story by printing sentences from a section of the story on paper strips, mixing the strips or word order, and having students put them in order.

Use questions after reading.
After the ELLs and/or whole class have completed the reading, you can test their comprehension with carefully crafted questions, taking care to use simple sentences and key vocabulary from the text they just read.

These questions can be at the:

Literal level (Why do the leaves turn red and yellow in the fall?)
Interpretive level (Why do you think it needs water?)
Applied level (How much water are you going to give it? Why?)


These strategies for ELLs just scratch the surface. If you'd like to learn more about the five components, be sure to take a look at the resources in the Hotlinks below. Remember: little things can go a long in way in providing effective literacy instruction for ELLs!

Hot links
Colorín Colorado Webcast: Reading to Learn in Grades 4-6
This Colorín Colorado webcast features Dr. Nonie Lesaux, and addresses the challenges facing English language learners — and their teachers — in grades 4-6.

Colorín Colorado Webcast: ELL Comprehension
This webcast featuring Dr. Cynthia Lundgren and Kristina Robertson discusses effective reading comprehension strategies for teaching English language learner students.

Colorín Colorado: ELL Reading Instruction Resources
These websites include instruction strategies, bilingual activities, and a wide variety of multimedia online resources.

Colorín Colorado: Teaching Reading
Resources include information on vocabulary, assessment, and grade-level strategies (K-3).

Colorín Colorado: Reading Tip Sheets for Educators
These tip sheets for educators in grades 4-12 include information on what to do first, vocabulary instruction, and age-appropriate reading strategies.

Research-based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4
Authors: Sylvia Linan-Thompson and Sharon Vaughn. A practical and accessible guide to reading instruction for ELLs that is organized around these five key components.

Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners
Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth by Diane August and Timothy Shanahan.

References

References
Click the "References" link above to hide these references.

Reading Rockets. Reading 101: What You Should Know. Retrieved 9/28/09 from http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/reading101.

Reading Rockets. Target the Problem! Retrieved 9/28/09 from http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target.

Portland, OR Public School District. ESL/Bilingual Resource Guide for Mainstream Teachers. Retrieved 9/28/09 from http://www.pps.k12.or.us/curriculum/PDFs/ESL_Modifications.pdf.

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http://www1.ncte.org/store/books/grammar/124190.htm?source=gs Code Switching Urban Dictionary

http://www1.ncte.org/store/books/grammar/124190.htm?source=gs

Code-Switching: Teaching Standard English in Urban Classrooms

Author(s): Rebecca S. Wheeler, Rachel Swords


When African American students write or say “Mama jeep is out of gas” or “The Earth revolve around the sun,” many teachers—labeling this usage poor English or bad grammar—assume that their students have problems with possession or don’t know how to make subjects and verbs agree.

Forty years of linguistic research, however, demonstrates that the student is not making errors in Standard English—the child is writing or speaking correctly in the language patterns of the home and of the community. Building on the linguistic knowledge that children bring to school becomes the focus of this book, which advocates the use of “code-switching” to enable students to add another linguistic code—Standard English—to their linguistic toolbox.

Rather than drill the idea of “Standard English” into students by labeling their home language as “wrong,” the authors recommend teaching students to recognize the grammatical differences between home speech and school speech so that they are then able to choose the language style most appropriate to the time, place, audience, and communicative purpose.

University researcher Rebecca Wheeler and urban elementary teacher Rachel Swords offer a practical, hands-on guide to code-switching, providing teachers with step-by-step instructions and numerous code-switching charts that can be reproduced for classroom use. The success of Wheeler’s presentations in urban school districts and the positive results that Swords has observed in her own classroom speak to the effectiveness of the research and of this approach. While the book focuses on language use in the elementary classroom, the procedures and materials introduced can be easily adapted for middle and high school students.

“Speakers of [African American English] and other vernaculars have continued to be misunderstood, misdiagnosed, underrespected, and underassisted in their efforts to add Standard English to their linguistic repertoire. And they’ve also been limited in their school success and occupational mobility. This book will, I think, help to dismantle these barriers, enabling teachers to ‘reach out to the students of urban America’ in ways they weren’t able to do before.”

—John R. Rickford, Martin Luther King, Jr., Centennial Professor of Linguistics, Stanford University

197 pp. 2006. Grades K–8. ISBN 0-8141-0702-8

Code Switching

http://www.edwize.org/decoding-grammar
Decoding Grammar
Aug. 22, 2006
11:14 amby syntacticgymnastics Filed under: Teaching


Is there a better way to teach Standard English grammar to students who speak African American English (AAE) or other English varieties?

As I prepare for my second year of teaching in NYC public high schools, I have been pondering this question. Last year, I became quite frustrated with teaching grammar in my regular ELA class. I saw that my students desperately needed to learn Standard English for their upcoming Regents exam, yet I was frustrated with both their resistance and seeming inability to grasp the concepts. My students kept making the same mistakes over and over again, as if they didn’t even realize they were making them. I started noticing the same patterns over and over in many of my student’s writing – particularly problems with subject-verb agreement, plurals, and possession. I would dutifully point these errors out in their papers, and sometimes even mention them in class, to no avail. Many wanted to learn, but it just didn’t seem to come to them the way it did for me, and I couldn’t understand why my corrections didn’t seem to help. In fact, the more I corrected, the more they resisted.

Teaching grammar explicitly has gone out of fashion. No more diagramming sentences, rote memorization, or decontextualized exercises. However, simply correcting student papers, offering support during the writing process, and teaching the occasional mini-lesson (the way I’d been taught to teach in grad school ala Constance Weaver and her book, Teaching Grammar in Context) is clearly not enough or maybe just not the right framework from which to teach my population of students. After all, my students are not going to learn Standard English by osmosis, and it’s unfair to penalize them for what I’m not really teaching.

According to Code-switching: Teaching Standard English in Urban Classrooms by Rebecca S. Wheeler and Rachel Swords, my students are not chronically making errors in grammar or speaking “lazy” English. Rather, they are following the patterns of their language variety or dialect. What if I taught them from a similar framework as I would teach Standard English to English Language Learners? What if I use their dialect, their existing knowledge, as a “springboard” to Standard English (SE)? Many of my students have been speaking a dialect of English their whole lives, so it’s clearly not the same thing as learning a second language, but there are many parallels. Wheeler and Swords tell us we can expect to see a “grammatical echo” of the first language in the student’s expression of another language or of another dialect (Wheeler and Swords 9). We see grammatical echoes whether the student’s home language is Thai, Spanish, or Hindi; whether their home dialect is South Asian English, South African English, or African American English (AAE). Wheeler and Swords urge us to first, collect observations and data on our students’ home dialects, and then use “contrastive analysis”, rather than the traditional “correctionist approach,” which has clearly failed with students of color (Wheeler and Swords 61).

Contrastive analysis teaches students to code-switch from one variety to another, depending on what is appropriate and effective for the situation (Wheeler and Swords 57). They use the example of a student who says, “Mama jeep need gas.” Rather than correct the student’s “error”, a contrastive approach would, in one lesson, look at the differences between the rules of possession according to AAE and the rules according to SE. In a subsequent lesson, students would look at differences in subject-verb agreement. These rules and examples would be listed side by side on a chart that would remain up for students’ reference. Sometimes students will be required to write in SE, for example in formal writing, and at other times students may choose to write in dialect. The idea is that students will be conscious of the choices they are making and understand what situations call for speaking and writing in SE.

Lisa J. Green, who wrote African American English: A Linguistic Introduction, agrees. She also advises teachers to teach grammar explicitly, and that teachers “offer direct instruction in pointing out and teaching the correspondences between AAE and mainstream English” (Green 236). Furthermore, she advises teachers to become familiar with students’ dialect patterns because “teachers who know something about the children’s native linguistic system are less likely to misclassify their grammatical linguistic patterns as mainstream English errors or disorders and are more likely to understand them as differences” (Green 240). Additionally, she asks us to think about literary giants such as Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, and Toni Morrison, all of whom exhibit not only a mastery of SE but also of AAE and are able to move between them for a powerful literary effect. Our students can strive for the same mastery of language, but only if we teach them in a way that respects AAE and makes the similarities and differences explicit.

Code-switching is not about getting rid of Standard English. On the contrary, code-switching recognizes the absolute necessity of speaking and writing Standard English in our society. In Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom, Lisa Delpit argues that students benefit from being taught explicitly the rules and “codes of power” of the middle class, including speaking and writing Standard English. She says, “If you are not already a participant in the culture of power, being told explicitly the rules of that culture makes acquiring that power easier” (Delpit 25). She goes on to argue that “if such explicitness is not provided to students, what it feels like to people who are old enough to judge is that there are secrets being kept, that time is being wasted, that the teacher is abdicating his or her duty to teach” (Delpit 31). If my students just aren’t learning it the way I’m teaching it, don’t I have an obligation to find a better way? To help them bridge the gaps, so they do understand? Speaking and writing Standard English is so crucial for their success in college and the professional world, so crucial for their access to real power in society, that I consider it one of my primary obligations to find a way to teach it so they will learn. Code-switching, quite simply, seems to be a more effective way to teach Standard English to students of color.

There is more at stake than simple pedagogical debates about the teaching of grammar. It is about our prejudices and our expectations of certain students.

Whether Black or White, a teacher is likely to consider a child speaking African American English as slower, less able, and less intelligent that the child who speaks Standard English. We call this dialect prejudice. Nieto (2000) explains that as teacher expectations are reduced, so the child’s classroom performance diminishes. We have found that as teachers understand more about the integrity of vernacular dialects and the structure and regularity of student language, they step away from dialect prejudice in the classroom. Teachers come to see students as fully intelligent, capable, and worthy. Their expectations for student performance rise, bringing to the classroom a self-fulfilling prophecy for success as their students work to master Standard English. (Wheeler and Swords 14)

It seems clear that teaching grammar through a “correctionist lens”, without acknowledging that vernacular dialects like African American English have their own rules and grammar, is not only unhelpful and bound to fail, but in fact detrimental to students’ school experiences and eventual success. However, respecting students’ cultures and language varieties, building and adding to their knowledge, and providing access to the “codes of power,” can be tremendously empowering for students. With this approach, hopefully my students will be better prepared for their bright futures.

The writer is a second year teacher in New York City. She writes about this subject and others at her blog, Syntactic Gymnastics. The views expressed here are her own, and meant to foster dialogue.

10 Comments:
1 Persam1197
• Aug 22, 2006 at 12:45 pm

As an ELA teacher myself and a “minority” (black Hispanic), I repectfully disagree with the concept of dialect linguistics. I think these are issues of class that transcend race and even ethncicity. A person of color from a solid middle-class background will have similar speech patterns as compared with “white” middle-class kids. Since our system has a relatively smaller white student body, the students who remain are those in solid middle-class neighborhoods or specialized schools. In other words, we’re not getting a comparable demographic sampling that highlights the effects of class rather than race. Many of our kids are descendents of the southern black migration to urban centers during the 40’s throughout the 70’s. If we were teaching in Alabama or Mississippi, we would be dealing with the same issues across all ethnicities.

On the practical side, I no longer believe in the “mini-lesson” to get our kids on track with grammar. I certainly was not given a “mini-lesson” and a “workshop model” lesson in language acquisition. I was given traditional formal grammar instruction at PS 106. It worked for me considering I was exposed to this so-called dialect in Bushwick, Brooklyn.

I think we must return to formal language instruction. Our kids are not dense; they just don’t have the foundation to process what you’re trying to offer them. At my school, we’re incorporating formal grammar instruction as part of the curriculum. Without a solid foundation, it’s like asking kids to do algebra without knowing arithmetic.
2 phyllis c. murray
• Aug 22, 2006 at 5:49 pm

The Writer’s Voice in Today’s Multi-cultural/Multi-ethnic Classrooms

By Phyllis C. Murray

“Standard English is that set of grammatical and lexical forms which is typically used in speech and writing by educated native speakers. It includes the use of colloquial and slang vocabulary, as well as swearwords and taboo expressions. There are no set rules or vocabulary for “Standard English” because, unlike languages such as French, Spanish or Dutch, English does not have a governing body i.e. Academie francaise. Peter Tudgill,PhD. UK

Knowing that we adapt our use of English to specific environments, it is not surprising that our language changes whenever we are relaxing at home with parents/family, or in a classroom, board room, or university. And our regional accents or dialect are often reflected as we speak. Class may also be added as another variable which influences our speech patterns. All of the aforementioned become the language we must capture as we write as we find our voice.

Writers adapt their writing styles for many reasons…as well. When Sandra Cisneros writes that she has “returned for those who have no out,” her message is very clear. She is aware of the correct English grammatical patterns. However, she chose to use the words which matched the context of the story. The story dictated how language would be altered to create the mood and picture conveyed.

It is interesting to note that Paul Lawrence Dunbar (1872-1906) could not find a market for his verses in “Standard” English.

“I am tired, so tired of dialect,” He said. ” I send out graceful little poems, suited for any of the magazines, but they are returned to me by editors who say, Dunbar, but we do not care for the language compositions.” Today Dunbar is remembered because of the poetry which was written in dialect. For example:

LITTLE lady at de do’,
W’y you stan’ dey knockin’?
Nevah seen you ac’ befo’
In er way so shockin’.
Don’ you know de sin it is
Fu’ to git my temper riz
W’en I’s got de rheumatiz
An’ my jints is lockin’?

Conversely, in the 1770s Phillis Wheatley wrote:

TWAS mercy brought me from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to understand
That there’s a God, that there’s a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew,
Some view our sable race with scornful eye,
“Their colour is a diabolic die.”
Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain,
May be refin’d, and join th’ angelic train

Phillis Wheatley died penniless in 1784.

Therefore, we soon realize that creating new pieces of literature in the classroom is an arduous task. And prior to launching the writing process, I have found it necessary to saute the students in some of the best literature possible. Although the list of books is long and wide, I rely on the magic of Sandra Cisneros’ “The House on Mango Street” to facilitate this journey.

Quite often the word from another culture is the only word that works in a particular context. Before using the word “temerity” to describe a situation, I changed it to “audacity.” However, I could have used “chutzpah” or any one of the following synonyms: HARDIHOOD, EFFRONTERY, NERVE, CHEEK, or GALL. Frank McCourt, like many of today’s gifted writers, has also brilliantly infused his cultural heritage into the language of “Angela’s Ashes.”

Today the English language is becoming more and more inclusive. And as Hip Hop vocabulary words become infused in the media, dictionaries, and universities, a new genre is emerging. Thus, I have encouraged my students to use words from any known lexicon. However, they must use italics to distinguish these words from the words that are not found in our English Dictionary. This phenomenon is also witnessed in Cisneros’ “The House on Mango Street.”

When my students took an imaginary trip to their ancestral home, their essays were filled with words and phrases which described the foods, greetings, and land of their ancestors. This fifth grade class had students from 15 different nations. And although many had never stepped foot on foreign soil, they used the information their parents had imparted to them over the years, to guide them on their vicarious journey. Their stories validated the land and language of their ancestors. It was truly amazing to watch the lesson unfold with revelations from Yemen, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Nigeria.

As educators, we are reminded by Haim Ginott that it is our approach that creates the climate in the classroom. It is our daily word that makes the weather in our classroom. And if the environment in our classroom is safe, many good things will happen.

Our students are writing to be read. Thus, they are very vulnerable. They are truly putting their life on the line as… Lucy Calkins reminds us.

Teachers have the power to nurture emergent writers. They also have the ability to nurture dreams as well as validate the work of their students.

“The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros is a beginning. Like so many pieces of great literature, “Mango Street” shows how the author can weave the language of two cultures to produce a masterpiece. And as students write in the genre of the author, they will find their voice in a remembrance of things past and present which will become their gift to the future.

Write on!Phyllis C. MurrayDistrict 8 Region 2Jackie Bennett Aug 23, 2006 at 6:57 am
When African American students write or say “Mama jeep is out of gas” or “The Earth revolve around the sun,” many teachers—labeling this usage poor English or bad grammar—assume that their students have problems with possession or don’t know how to make subjects and verbs agree.

Forty years of linguistic research, however, demonstrates that the student is not making errors in Standard English—the child is writing or speaking correctly in the language patterns of the home and of the community. Building on the linguistic knowledge that children bring to school becomes the focus of this book, which advocates the use of “code-switching” to enable students to add another linguistic code—Standard English—to their linguistic toolbox.

Rather than drill the idea of “Standard English” into students by labeling their home language as “wrong,” the authors recommend teaching students to recognize the grammatical differences between home speech and school speech so that they are then able to choose the language style most appropriate to the time, place, audience, and communicative purpose.

University researcher Rebecca Wheeler and urban elementary teacher Rachel Swords offer a practical, hands-on guide to code-switching, providing teachers with step-by-step instructions and numerous code-switching charts that can be reproduced for classroom use. The success of Wheeler’s presentations in urban school districts and the positive results that Swords has observed in her own classroom speak to the effectiveness of the research and of this approach. While the book focuses on language use in the elementary classroom, the procedures and materials introduced can be easily adapted for middle and high school students.

“Speakers of [African American English] and other vernaculars have continued to be misunderstood, misdiagnosed, underrespected, and underassisted in their efforts to add Standard English to their linguistic repertoire. And they’ve also been limited in their school success and occupational mobility. This book will, I think, help to dismantle these barriers, enabling teachers to ‘reach out to the students of urban America’ in ways they weren’t able to do before.”

—John R. Rickford, Martin Luther King, Jr., Centennial Professor of Linguistics, Stanford University

197 pp. 2006. Grades K–8. ISBN 0-8141-0702-8.
http://www1.ncte.org/store/books/grammar/124190.htm?source=gs

Thursday, October 22, 2009

about the 7 strategies to construct meaning - draft

Week 4

( FALL 2009 ) BASIC READING INSTRUCTION GR 1-GR 6 [ EDSE 665 OQ ] 09/10/2009 - 12/15/2009 (EDSE-665--OQ-FA-09-GSEP) > ASSIGNMENTS > UPLOAD ASSIGNMENT: WEEK 4 - ASSIGNMENT (10/18/2009)


Upload Assignment: Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)
Assignment Information
Name Week 4 - Assignment (10/18/2009)
Instructions Read Textbook Chapters 4.

Weekly Papers - 2 Questions

Reflection Questions:

1. What is 'reciprocal' teaching? (Focus on procedures & possible uses).


While researching the meaning of rt , I found a previous entry / comment from yahoo answers , which I though that I would share. As follows:
Who have tried reciprocal teaching as a strategy in class? how was it?

i am presently making a quasi experiment on the difference between the traditional method of teaching (where the teacher just discuss the topic) and using reciprocal teaching... i wanted to gather information, ideas, findings of other educators who have tried reciprocal teaching in their classes..

Reciprocal teaching is fantastic! It takes time to teach students the proper way to discuss literature but I've seen it work wonderfully.



2. List the seven strategies that help to construct meaning. Give an example of each strategy.


In a great article from AdLit. Org, a lever list of the & strategies to construct meaning is listed:

http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acquisition.phtml

AdLit Magazine http://www.adlit.org/article/19844

WETA AD LIT http://weta.convio.net/site/PageServer?pagename=AdLit_regthankyou


I chose to use the early education model to describe the seven strategies, because it makes it fun and easier to remember. So let us start.

A is for Activating. Activating is the Exercising of the Cognitive Muscles in order to recall and relate relevant prior knowledge in order to extract and construct meaning from text.
I is for Inferring. Inferring is the act of bringing together what is spoken ( written) and what is unspoken (unwritten) amd what is already known in order to construct meaning.
M/C is for Monitoring- Clarifying. Monitoring – Clarifying is defined as “ thinking about how and what one is reading, all throughout the reading process, for determining if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups.”


Instructional Aid 1.1: Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers
Strategy Definition
Activating -
Inferring
Monitoring-Clarifying
Questioning
Searching-Selecting
Summarizing
Visualizing-Organizing
Copyright © 2007 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from 40 Ways to Support Struggling Readers in the Content Classrooms, Grades 6-12 by Elaine K. McEwan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, www.corwinpress.com.
"Priming the cognitive pump" in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory
in order to extract and construct meaning from text
Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoker (unwritten) in the text, and what is already
known by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the text
Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining
if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups
Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question
generation, and question answering
Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and
terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather information.
Restating the meaning of text in one's own words--different words from those used in the original text
Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the
text

Instructional Aid 1.1: Seven Strategies of Highly Effective Readers
Strategy Definition
Activating
Inferring
Monitoring-Clarifying
Questioning
Searching-Selecting
Summarizing
Visualizing-Organizing
Copyright © 2007 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from 40 Ways to Support Struggling Readers in the Content
Classrooms, Grades 6-12 by Elaine K. McEwan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, www.corwinpress.com.
"Priming the cognitive pump" in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory
in order to extract and construct meaning from text
Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoker (unwritten) in the text, and what is already
knowen by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the text
Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining
if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-ups
Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question
generation, and question answering
Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and
terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather information.
Restating the meaning of text in one's own words--different words from those used in the original text
Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the
text








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Week 5 vocabulary

Teaching Today publishes innovative teaching tips on a weekly basis. Written with the busy teacher in mind, each tip is concise, practical and easy to implement in the classroom right away. Topics covered in Teaching Today are classroom management, career development, high stakes testing, instruction and planning, parental involvement, reading in the content areas, using technology in the classroom, and portfolio development. Teaching Today also offers free weekly downloads that correspond to the tips. Our free downloads make implementing the teaching tips even easier. Teaching Today provides educational resources for teachers looking for everyday solutions to the challenges of the classroom.


http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acquisition.phtml


Helping Students Learn Vocabulary-Acquisition Skills
The task of teaching vocabulary-acquisition skills usually falls to language arts teachers. This is a significant responsibility because formal learning—the kind of learning that students do in school—demands vocabulary knowledge. When you help students learn how to build their vocabularies, you help them succeed across the curriculum.

This article examines the two major ways in which students acquire new vocabulary, the students for whom each way is best suited, and strategies for teaching vocabulary acquisition.

Incidental Acquisition vs. Direct Study
Students may acquire vocabulary in two ways:

Incidentally, through the conscious or unconscious use of context clues during independent reading and listening activities
Through direct instruction and study.
Incidental Acquisition
Incidental vocabulary acquisition is a common means of learning new vocabulary, especially for proficient readers. Students with strong reading skills who read a variety of texts may realize substantial gains in their vocabulary without direct instruction. High-risk students may also realize some incidental vocabulary gains through independent reading, however. Teachers should neither ignore nor rely solely upon incidental acquisition but rather seek to enhance its effectiveness with vocabulary logs, word walls and other techniques discussed below.
Direct Study
Of the two ways students acquire vocabulary, direct study is the more efficient, particularly for high-risk students with poor vocabularies. There are several reasons that students may fail to learn new vocabulary on their own:

Lack of Independent Reading: High-risk students often have a history of reading difficulties. As a result, these students generally read less—and with less comprehension—than students with strong reading skills and rich vocabularies. The less students read, the fewer the opportunities to acquire new vocabulary.

Inability to Use Context Clues: Students often lack the ability to find and use context clues to infer word meaning. Students may simply skip over unfamiliar words or, if the concentration of unfamiliar words is high, quickly become frustrated and stop reading entirely.

Weakness of Context-Clue Vocabulary Acquisition: Even when students are able to use context clues to infer the meanings of unfamiliar words, the words may not become part of students' speaking, listening, or reading vocabularies. Studies show that students cannot recall an unfamiliar word whose meaning they have inferred unless they encounter the word repeatedly and within the same or a similar context.
A Multifaceted Approach to Vocabulary Acquisition
Because most classrooms contain a variety of types of students—high-risk, gifted or talented, and everything in between—teachers are wise to adopt a multifaceted approach to vocabulary acquisition. This approach provides direct instruction as well as opportunities for incidental learning. Here are some strategies for implementing the approach:
Require independent reading: If your school does not already have a recommended reading list, help create one. Include high-interest, low-level books suitable for high-risk students as well as books that will challenge the gifted or talented. Then require students to read a certain number of books of their choice from the list. Students might provide feedback on their reading in a variety of ways: oral or written book reports, posters with plot summaries, performances of key scenes, or the creation of "book boxes"—cardboard boxes that contain objects key to the plot or characters in a book.

Encourage the use of semantic maps: Semantic maps are graphic organizers that help students associate an unfamiliar word with familiar related words. To map the word noun, for example, draw a circle and write noun in the center of it. Then draw smaller circles around the central circle and fill each with a key related word, such as person, place, and thing. To complete the map, surround each outer circle with a series of subcircles, each containing an example of the related word, such as the name of a specific person, place, or thing. Then show the relationships by connecting all the circles with lines.

Have students keep vocabulary logs: Require students to reserve a section of their journals or notebooks for listing, defining, and using new words that they learn during independent reading or in their classes. Have students copy the context in which they first encounter each word. Periodically collect students' logs and create opportunities for students to hear, see, and use the words in context. For example, you might use words from students' logs in classroom conversations. Have students create a "word wall"—a bulletin board displaying new words in sentences or graphic organizers—and require students to use the new words in compositions.

Teach students the key word method: To use this mnemonic device, students think of an image that connects an unfamiliar word with a familiar key word that sounds similar or is contained within the target word. For example, to remember the word truculent, students might think of the key word truck and then draw or visualize a picture of a fierce-looking person driving a truck to represent the meaning of the word.

Preteach unfamiliar vocabulary in reading assignments: Studies suggest that students must encounter a new word in print several times in order to remember its meaning. However, the number of encounters needed to learn the word is significantly reduced when students are taught the meaning of the word before encountering it in a reading assignment.
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Monday, October 19, 2009

songfacts dance james brown - mother popcorn dance http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=10292

http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=7492 5,67,8

http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=7492
http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=7492

Interesting about Caspers Cha Cha Slide

Hot Chocolate- I believe in miracles you sexy thing- www.songfacts.com

Lyrics for: Brother Louie
Send "Brother Louie" Ringtone to your Cell


She was black as the night
Louie was whiter than white
Danger, danger when you taste brown sugar
Louie fell in love overnight

Nothing bad, it was good
Louie had the best girl he could
When he took her home
To meet his mama and papa
Louie knew just where he stood

Louie Louie Louie, Louie
Louie Louie Lou-I
Louie Louie Louie
Louie Louie you're gonna cry

[Instrumental Interlude]

There he stood in the night
Knowing what's wrong from what's right
He took her home to meet his mama and papa
Man, he had a terrible fright

Louie nearly caused a scene
Wishin' it was a dream
Ain't no diff'rence if you're black or white
Brothers, you know what I mean

Louie Louie Louie, Louie
Louie Louie Lou-I
Louie Louie Louie
Louie Louie you're gonna cry

[Instrumental Interlude]

Louie Louie Louie, Louie
Louie Louie Lou-I
Louie Louie Louie
Louie Louie you're gonna cry

Louie Louie Louie, Louie
Louie Louie Louie Louie Lou-I
Louie Louie Louie
Louie Louie you're gonna cry

Send "Brother Louie" Ringtone to your Cell


Posted by: j - chicago, IL



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you can correct them if you register.
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